Giorgio de Chirico

Giorgio de Chirico (1888–1978) – Italian artist and theorist of art, the main representative of the «metaphysical painting» recognized subsequently as the forerunner of surrealism.

Giorgio de Chirico was born in the Greece in 1888. Got education at Higher art school in Athens and in Academy of Arts in Munich. His interest in mysterious Friedrich Nietzsche's theory, Arthur Schopenhauer's ideas about intuitive knowledge and Arnold Böcklin’s allegorical painting emerged de Chirico’s devotion to interpretation of mysterious symbols, dreams and hallucinations. De Chirico became a well-known because of the series of pictures with deserted city squares and architectural or antique scenery, combining the subjects not connected with each other which created a disturbing, not real atmosphere. «To become immortal the artwork has to go beyond human, there, where there is no sense and logic» – de Chirico wrote in 1913.

The search of supernatural in the ordinary became the subject which surrealists were interested in later. Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí and others considered de Chirico the predecessor of this art movement.